Reblog

Things seen...

policymic:

23 ways feminists have made the world better for women

It may seem like a bizarrely obvious statement, but somewhere between earning women the right to vote, pushing through legislation opening up universities to female students and advancing the Civil Rights movement (to name just a very few examples), feminism has indeed made life much, much better (and as a result, happier) — not just for American women, but American men as well. Far removed from the stereotypical and inaccurate image of the bra-burning activist, feminists have proven time and time again that women’s rights are human rights. And as the Declaration of Independence so elegantly points out, the ideals of life and liberty are intrinsically tied up with that third pursuit: happiness. 

Read the full list | Follow policymic

(via smartgirlsattheparty)

explore-blog:

Upside Down Day – lovely vintage children’s book about those days when nothing seems to be right, penned by the director of NASA’s Public Affairs Office.

explore-blog:

Upside Down Day – lovely vintage children’s book about those days when nothing seems to be right, penned by the director of NASA’s Public Affairs Office.

drhalfpintbuddy:

The Hallmarks of Cancer: 8 - Tumor-Promoting InflammationAfter a too-long hiatus, here is my eighth article in this series :) The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten anti-cancer defense mechanisms that are hardwired into our cells, that must be breached by a cell on the path towards cancer. The Eighth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Tumor-Promoting Inflammation”. All seven previous Hallmark articles can be found here: http://goo.gl/IDGfLpAs always, because this is such a complex topic, I don’t want to skip details at the cost of avoiding TL;DR. So I’ve written a far more detailed explanation (complete with my own diagrams!) that is easier to follow on +Scientific American, and I highly recommend you check it out here: http://goo.gl/ThMpl9. In this article, I explain the complex relationship between inflammation and cancer, and how our own immune system can ‘turn traitor’ and promote cancer development.✤ Within the last few years, we have obtained clear evidence that inflammation plays a critical role in cancer development, and we are just beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms of how this happens. Chronic infections, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants and high fat diets are now recognized as major risk factors for most common types of cancer; and, importantly, all these risk factors are linked to cancer through inflammation. ✤ Inflammation is how tissues and cells respond to injury. If the inflammation causing agent persists for a prolonged period of time, the body’s response to it becomes a chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation increases cancer risk. ✤ An extremely graphic yet apt way of describing a tumor is as “a wound that doesn’t heal”. Indeed, there are many similarities between a cancerous tumor and the process of wound healing. Both involve the growth, survival, and migration of cells; both require the growth of new blood vessels; importantly, all these processes are controlled by growth factors and signalling molecules. Just as the immune cells gather near a site of injury to secrete growth factors to begin tissue repair, tumors can also surround themselves with immune cells that secrete these same growth factors to promote their uncontrolled cell growth. ✤ Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), a ‘corrupted’ type of immune cell support tumors in four different ways; by providing growth factors, helping to develop a blood supply to the tumor, promoting metastasis and suppressing the tumor-killing abilities of the immune system. Essentially, TAMs help the tumor overcome the barriers represented by the anti-cancer defence mechanisms that consist the Hallmarks. ✤ The existence of both tumor-promoting and tumor-killing immune cells at first seems counter-intuitive. The immune cells specializing in wound cleaning and clearing up dead cells are recruited and subverted by tumor cells to support tumor growth and progression. Shifting the balance from tumor-promoting to tumor-killing immune involvement therefore represents an attractive and powerful possibility for future therapy.  #ScienceSunday    #ScienceEveryday   #HallmarksOfCancerhttp://click-to-read-mo.re/p/6G8X

drhalfpintbuddy:

The Hallmarks of Cancer: 8 - Tumor-Promoting Inflammation

After a too-long hiatus, here is my eighth article in this series :) The Hallmarks of Cancer are ten anti-cancer defense mechanisms that are hardwired into our cells, that must be breached by a cell on the path towards cancer. The Eighth Hallmark of Cancer is defined as “Tumor-Promoting Inflammation”. All seven previous Hallmark articles can be found here: http://goo.gl/IDGfLp

As always, because this is such a complex topic, I don’t want to skip details at the cost of avoiding TL;DR. So I’ve written a far more detailed explanation (complete with my own diagrams!) that is easier to follow on +Scientific American, and I highly recommend you check it out here: http://goo.gl/ThMpl9. In this article, I explain the complex relationship between inflammation and cancer, and how our own immune system can ‘turn traitor’ and promote cancer development.

✤ Within the last few years, we have obtained clear evidence that inflammation plays a critical role in cancer development, and we are just beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms of how this happens. Chronic infections, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, environmental pollutants and high fat diets are now recognized as major risk factors for most common types of cancer; and, importantly, all these risk factors are linked to cancer through inflammation. 

✤ Inflammation is how tissues and cells respond to injury. If the inflammation causing agent persists for a prolonged period of time, the body’s response to it becomes a chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation increases cancer risk. 

✤ An extremely graphic yet apt way of describing a tumor is as “a wound that doesn’t heal”. Indeed, there are many similarities between a cancerous tumor and the process of wound healing. Both involve the growth, survival, and migration of cells; both require the growth of new blood vessels; importantly, all these processes are controlled by growth factors and signalling molecules. Just as the immune cells gather near a site of injury to secrete growth factors to begin tissue repair, tumors can also surround themselves with immune cells that secrete these same growth factors to promote their uncontrolled cell growth. 

✤ Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs), a ‘corrupted’ type of immune cell support tumors in four different ways; by providing growth factors, helping to develop a blood supply to the tumor, promoting metastasis and suppressing the tumor-killing abilities of the immune system. Essentially, TAMs help the tumor overcome the barriers represented by the anti-cancer defence mechanisms that consist the Hallmarks. 

✤ The existence of both tumor-promoting and tumor-killing immune cells at first seems counter-intuitive. The immune cells specializing in wound cleaning and clearing up dead cells are recruited and subverted by tumor cells to support tumor growth and progression. Shifting the balance from tumor-promoting to tumor-killing immune involvement therefore represents an attractive and powerful possibility for future therapy. 

#ScienceSunday   #ScienceEveryday   #HallmarksOfCancer

http://click-to-read-mo.re/p/6G8X

bookpickings:

Practical Wisdom: The Right Way to Do the Right Thing

Barry Schwartz

Fantastic read on how to cultivate practical wisdom on our everyday lives and why it matters in our individual and collective happiness

bookpickings:

Practical Wisdom: The Right Way to Do the Right Thing

Barry Schwartz

Fantastic read on how to cultivate practical wisdom on our everyday lives and why it matters in our individual and collective happiness

Scientists explain how memories stick together

neurosciencestuff:

Scientists at the Salk Institute have created a new model of memory that explains how neurons retain select memories a few hours after an event.

image

This new framework provides a more complete picture of how memory works, which can inform research into disorders liked Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s,…

(Source: salk.edu)

explore-blog:

Bibo, wonderful animated short film about a lonely robot, a year in the making – a sort of modern-day, sadder version of Pixar’s groundbreaking 1986 classic Luxo Jr.

neurosciencestuff:

Existence of new neuron repair pathway discovered
Most of your neurons can’t be replaced.
Other parts of your body – such as skin and bone – can be replaced by the body growing new cells, but when you injure your neurons, you can’t just grow new ones; instead, the existing cells have to repair themselves.
In the case of axon injury, the neuron is able to repair or sometimes even fully regenerate its axon. But neurons have two sides – the axon (which sends signals to other cells) and the dendrite (which receives signals from other cells).
Melissa Rolls, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State and director of the Huck Institutes’ Center for Cellular Dynamics, has done extensive comparisons of axons and dendrites – culminating recently in a paper published in Cell Reports.
“We know that the axon side can repair itself,” says Rolls, “and we know a bunch of the molecular players. But we really didn’t know whether neurons have the same capacity to regenerate their dendrites, and so that’s what we set out to find in this study.”
“Our lab uses a Drosophila model system, where the dendrites are very accessible to manipulation,” she says, “so we decided that we would start by removing all the dendrites from the neurons to see if they could regenerate. We didn’t start with anything subtle, like taking off just a few dendrites. We said ‘Let’s just push the system to its maximum and see if this is even possible.’ And we were surprised because we found that not only is it possible, it’s actually much faster than axon regeneration: at least in the cells that we’re using, axon regeneration takes a day or two to initiate, while dendrite regeneration typically initiates within four to six hours and it works really well. All the cells where we removed the dendrites grew new dendrites – none of them died; so it’s clear that these cells have a way to both detect dendrite injury and initiate regrowth of the injured part.”
Read more

neurosciencestuff:

Existence of new neuron repair pathway discovered

Most of your neurons can’t be replaced.

Other parts of your body – such as skin and bone – can be replaced by the body growing new cells, but when you injure your neurons, you can’t just grow new ones; instead, the existing cells have to repair themselves.

In the case of axon injury, the neuron is able to repair or sometimes even fully regenerate its axon. But neurons have two sides – the axon (which sends signals to other cells) and the dendrite (which receives signals from other cells).

Melissa Rolls, an associate professor of biochemistry and molecular biology at Penn State and director of the Huck Institutes’ Center for Cellular Dynamics, has done extensive comparisons of axons and dendrites – culminating recently in a paper published in Cell Reports.

“We know that the axon side can repair itself,” says Rolls, “and we know a bunch of the molecular players. But we really didn’t know whether neurons have the same capacity to regenerate their dendrites, and so that’s what we set out to find in this study.”

“Our lab uses a Drosophila model system, where the dendrites are very accessible to manipulation,” she says, “so we decided that we would start by removing all the dendrites from the neurons to see if they could regenerate. We didn’t start with anything subtle, like taking off just a few dendrites. We said ‘Let’s just push the system to its maximum and see if this is even possible.’ And we were surprised because we found that not only is it possible, it’s actually much faster than axon regeneration: at least in the cells that we’re using, axon regeneration takes a day or two to initiate, while dendrite regeneration typically initiates within four to six hours and it works really well. All the cells where we removed the dendrites grew new dendrites – none of them died; so it’s clear that these cells have a way to both detect dendrite injury and initiate regrowth of the injured part.”

Read more